Interconnects play an increasing role in all electronic and information systems, allowing fast and high bandwidth communication both on-chip and off-chip.
Synchronization of systems with robust and adaptive clocking systems are
a very important aspect of the most advanced multi-core microprocessors.
3D technologies are emerging and present great opportunities but also new
challenges in interconnect, thermal issues, mixed-technologies and power delivery.
Power consumption continues to be a challenge in battery-powered,
wall-powered and now even wirelessly-powered systems. Increased power density
and especially device leakage, leads to increasing temperature which must be sensed
and mitigated both at design-time and run-time.
Side-channel Leakage and On-Chip Monitors: Power consumption, timing information, temperature, faults and electromagnetic radiation all can be monitored to optimize the system as well as to attack and divulge secret information in the system.
Finally, computation and communication in the presence of uncertain manufacturing
process, voltage noise and temperature has become a primary design issue.
Test chip manufactured in 45nm IBM SOI, 2011.